Also with the Tabula Rasa theory there has been one more aspect of determinism which is called conditioning.
The Development of Behavioral Psychology Essay
Conditioning is considered to be one of the simplest forms one can do to learn. In conditioning a certain type of behavior is learned by a person and or animal. This type of learning is often considered to be a direct result of the reinforcement or the connection of an unconditioned stimulus with a conditioned stimulus. An interesting concept some behaviorists believe is that certain behaviors can be countered or unlearned through an either positive or negative change in the actual reinforcement. The change in the reinforcement is called behavior modification and in it the person can be given an object or something that they can used to trade in for something better every time they do the right thing.
Drive theory involves the concepts of unlearned or primary drives, drive reduction, and learned secondary drives. It is based on the fact that all living organisms have physiological needs that must be satisfied for survival for example, the need for food, water, sleep, and so forth to maintain a state of homeostasis, that is, a steady internal state. If the aroused state has been created by hunger, it is called a hunger drive, and the drive can be reduced by food.
Drive reduction moves toward the re-establishment of homeostasis. Drives, then, may be thought of as the consequence of a physiological need, which an organism is impelled to reduce or eliminate. Clark Hull, a learning theorist, developed an equation to show how learning and drive are related. Drives may also be learned, or secondary. Fear or anxiety , for example, is often considered a secondary drive that can be learned through either classical or operant conditioning. Eventually, the rat learned to react to the experience of being put in a black box with no shock given with the response of turning a wheel to escape.
In this case, the black box is said to have elicited the learned drive of fear.
Among other drives considered by some theorists to be learned are the need for affiliation that is, to belong, to have companionship , the need for security money , and the need for achievement. Theories of incentive motivation contend that external stimuli can motivate behavior. Humans and other animals can learn to value external stimuli for example, the first prize in a track meet for a human and a pat on the head for a dog and will work to get them. Incentive motivation is sometimes called pull motivation because incentives are said to pull in contrast with the push associated with drives.
The behavioral perspective is mainly focused on the idea that psychology should only be concerned with the measurable physical responses one has to certain environmental stimuli. This certain perspective was first introduced to the world by John Broadus Watson who lived from to He was a great student at the University of Chicago and worked to get his doctorate at the same time.
He strongly believed that the science of psychology was meant to be a hard science as the rest of the sciences were therefore psychology should seek out observable behavior. Watson thought that psychology was not meant to deal with mental events because to him they are un-measurable in every way except to the actual organism experiencing them.
Psychology Essay | Essay
Click the button above to view the complete essay, speech, term paper, or research paper. Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly. Specifically, Sigmund argued that patients can be cured by evoking consciousness in unconscious thoughts. As such, this field aims at determining repressed emotions in patients with depression and anxiety disorders.
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On the other hand, Behaviorism attracted a main stream attention between and Better Essays words 2. Skinner was considered the father of behavioral approach to psychology and a noticeable spokesperson for behaviorism. According to Corey , he advocated radical behaviorism.
In other words it placed a primary importance on the effects of environment on behavior. Skinner was a determinist; he did not consider that humans had free choices. He recognized the existence of feeling and thoughts, but disagreed about them causing humans action. In its place, he underlined the cause-and-effect links between objective, observable environmental conditions and behavior Better Essays words 2 pages.
Psychology : The Mind And Behavior
It emphasizes a scientific and objective approached to investigate behavior. Behaviorism is known to most as a psychological approach.
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John Watson was known to be the loudest voice for behaviorism even though he was not the founder. He started the spread of the knowledge of what behaviorism was in , when he wrote an article that stated the methodology and behavioral analysis of behaviorism. Better Essays words 4. Throughout this course I have attempted to find useful information to apply in my future classroom. Of all of the theories we have covered, I have chosen two that I wish to utilize to the fullest extent possible.
Although there are numerous theories that will apply in one way or another, I hope to make use of the theoretical perspectives of behaviorism and constructivism.brouwerassurantien.com/cache/celll/comment-supprimer-logiciel-espion-iphone-6.php
Free human behavior Essays and Papers
Behaviorism is the theoretical approach to learning that looks on the outside influences of an individual rather than the inside Learning can be defined as a relatively permanent change in behavior that is due to past experience. John B.
Watson was an early psychologist that didn't agree with many other psychologist's ideas about learning only relating to consciousness and thought processes. As the founder of behaviorism, Watson studied learning in a behavioral perspective, an approach that emphasizes the relationship between outwardly observable behaviors and environmental events, rather than mental processes