Thinking about equity can help us decide how to distribute goods and services across society, holding the state responsible for its influence over how goods and services are distributed in a society, and using this influence to ensure fair treatment for all citizens. Applying these ideas in a specific country context involves hard choices, and embedding discussions of distributive justice into domestic political and policy debates is central to national development, but three areas of considerable consensus can be identified.
In order of priority, these are:.
Role of media in our society
Equal life chances: There should be no differences in outcomes based on factors for which people cannot be held responsible. Meritocracy: Positions in society and rewards should reflect differences in effort and ability, based on fair competition. Unfortunately, there is considerable inequity in developing countries. Also, patterns of inequality reinforce each other through intergenerational transmission and various formal and informal institutions, resulting in inequality between groups and geographical regions and chronic poverty passed between generations.
The available evidence on the scale of the challenge confirms a worrying picture of life chances dependent on inherited circumstances and inequitable access to services, as well as rising income inequality which may further entrench disadvantage. As well as being a bad thing in itself, this inequity has a negative effect on growth, poverty reduction, social cohesion and voice.
The solutions Taking equity as a guiding principle brings into focus particular areas of policy. These are existing and emerging areas of policy, but they gain a new importance from an equity perspective. The five core priorities for addressing equity at the national level are:. Providing universal public services for fair treatment.
This means prioritising universal access to public services, such as health and education, and improving their quality by improving their delivery and strengthening underlying institutions. Infrastructure and law and order are also crucial.
Role of civil society in democracy today: [Essay Example], words GradesFixer
Services should be free at the point of delivery wherever possible, and where this is not possible, arrangements should be made to ensure that poor people are not excluded. Targeted action for disadvantaged groups. Government expenditure should favour disadvantaged regions or groups. Quotas can support access to employment for specific excluded groups. Services targeted towards these groups are crucial e. Empowering these groups is also vital, as well as strengthening organisations such as producer organisations, social movements and trade unions.
Social protection. Social protection should be provided to ensure that nobody drops below a minimum level of wellbeing, beyond which unmet need will create cycles of disadvantage. Options include: payments such as social insurance or basic income grants; conditional transfers to promote human development; minimum wage policies; guaranteed government employment programmes; and labour market regulations to those in employment.
However, against these important roles to play in a democracy, civil societies have their own drawbacks and concerns which hamper its effectiveness. The intelligence network has been left loose to probe their activities and they are not being allowed to work up to their efficiency.
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Their funds are being frozen and they are being maligned through the media so that they lose their credibility. Along with this, civil society suffers from trust deficit in the areas of Scheduled Tribes. It also has the constraints of resources which adversely impacts their functioning. Furthermore, the system of accountability in the Civil Society organizations is also a bone of contention. The preachers of transparency sometimes themselves lack the same. But it is not that the model of civil society is failing in keeping up the values of democracy.
Rather in modern times, with more youthful population and virtually connected world, the use of civil society has attained more significance. The advent of World Social Forum in the backdrop of World Economic Forum is an example of how complex the functioning and the role of civil society has attained. The Umbrella movement in Hong Kong to stabilize the democracy has shown that civil society still is a vibrant one and it is not fading away. In modern avatar, with advent of digitalization and low airfares, the efforts of civil society have become more interconnected across the world.
The success of The Jubilee campaign against the policies of WTO, cancelling the unjust debt of the poor countries, proves the harmonized efforts of civil society.
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Sorry, copying is not allowed on our website. We will occasionally send you account related emails. Want us to write one just for you? Financial crisis in Japan Essay. Tennessee v. Garner and Graham v. Connor Essay. The civil society being different from the state implies an arena in which people can realize their self interest, develop their personality and learn the value of group action by depending on others for their welfare.
Civil society prepares the people to participate in state functioning and thus, it provides a solid base of citizenship. Civil society can be described as something private as contrasted to the state and as something public when contrasted to the family.
Though it is an aspect of the modern state and is subject to its control, yet it is autonomous and voluntarily organised. Charles Taylor characterised it as a commercial society that includes both economic associations as well as the domain of non-economic voluntary associations. John Lock referred it as a state where men enter to form a government which can protect them against the uncertainties of the state of nature.
For Hegel, civil society is a voluntarily organised body that is intermediate between the state and the family. People here live with their self-interest and personal choice and with minimum constraints. Though traditionally civil society and state were treated synonymously, Hegel separated these terms for the first time. Civil society has been described as a primary source for the civic virtues required to maintain a stable polity.
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Though it is a source of community and solidarity and also a sphere of social homogeneity and identity, yet it is also a sphere of plurality, diversity and conflict. The values of civil society are those of political participation and state accountability. Thus, it provides the necessary basis for participation in formal political institutions. The institutions of civil society are associational. It advocates pluralism and is opposed to totalitarianism. When state becomes an authoritarian political institution, its authority is to be challenged by the civil society.