The Russians became very powerful nations. When Russia was ruled by Ivan III he conquered many affluent cities and considerably expanded its territory Powerful Essays words 2. Thomas J. Sandora and Donald A. Goldmann believe that basic infection control procedures are the way to decrease and stop antibiotic resistant bacteria strains from spreading and developing. Think again.
Do you like to give make-overs. Are you always looking at people and trying to figure out how to make them less ugly. Do you pride yourself on always looking your best with the latest styles and current hair trends. If you've made it this far, cosmetology may be the answer to your dream of making major mullah while setting your own hours, using that creative brain of yours, and looking absolutely smashing while doing it Essay on Infection Control.
Essay on Outline Procedures for Infection Control in Own Work Setting - Words
Essay on Infection Control Length: words 6. Essay Preview. After the instruments have been soaked in the chemical solutions, they are mandatory to be rinsed with sterile water which will remove the residues from the disinfectants. This is the reason why needles and syringes are not sterilized in this way, as the residues left by the chemical solution that has been used to disinfect them cannot be washed off with water and they may interfere with the administered treatment.
Although formaldehyde is less expensive than glutaraldehydes, it is also more irritating to the eyes , skin and respiratory tract and is classified as a potential carcinogen. Other sterilization methods exist, though their efficiency is still controversial.
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These methods include gas , UV, gas plasma , and chemical sterilization with agents such as peroxyacetic acid or paraformaldehyde. Infections can be prevented from occurring in homes as well. In order to reduce their chances to contract an infection, individuals are recommended to maintain a good hygiene by washing their hands after every contact with questionable areas or bodily fluids and by disposing of garbage at regular intervals to prevent germs from growing.
Disinfection uses liquid chemicals on surfaces and at room temperature to kill disease causing microorganisms. Ultraviolet light has also been used to disinfect the rooms of patients infected with Clostridium difficile after discharge. Personal protective equipment PPE is specialized clothing or equipment worn by a worker for protection against a hazard. The hazard in a health care setting is exposure to blood, saliva, or other bodily fluids or aerosols that may carry infectious materials such as Hepatitis C , HIV , or other blood borne or bodily fluid pathogen.
PPE prevents contact with a potentially infectious material by creating a physical barrier between the potential infectious material and the healthcare worker. The United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration OSHA requires the use of Personal protective equipment PPE by workers to guard against blood borne pathogens if there is a reasonably anticipated exposure to blood or other potentially infectious materials. Components of PPE include gloves , gowns , bonnets, shoe covers, face shields , CPR masks , goggles , surgical masks , and respirators.
How many components are used and how the components are used is often determined by regulations or the infection control protocol of the facility in question. Many or most of these items are disposable to avoid carrying infectious materials from one patient to another patient and to avoid difficult or costly disinfection. In the US, OSHA requires the immediate removal and disinfection or disposal of a worker's PPE prior to leaving the work area where exposure to infectious material took place.
Infection Control Prevention Essay
The inappropriate use of PPE equipment such as gloves, has been linked to an increase in rates of the transmission of infection,  and the use of such must be compatible with the other particular hand hygiene agents used. Products made with antimicrobial copper alloy brasses , bronzes , cupronickel , copper-nickel-zinc, and others surfaces destroy a wide range of microorganisms in a short period of time. Other investigations have demonstrated the efficacy of antimicrobial copper alloys to destroy Clostridium difficile , influenza A virus , adenovirus , and fungi.
The synthetic hard surface is being installed in the United States as well as in Israel. Health care workers may be exposed to certain infections in the course of their work. Vaccines are available to provide some protection to workers in a healthcare setting. Depending on regulation, recommendation, the specific work function, or personal preference, healthcare workers or first responders may receive vaccinations for hepatitis B ; influenza ; measles, mumps and rubella ; Tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis ; N.
Surveillance is the act of infection investigation using the CDC definitions. Determining the presence of a hospital acquired infection requires an infection control practitioner ICP to review a patient's chart and see if the patient had the signs and symptom of an infection. Surveillance definitions exist for infections of the bloodstream, urinary tract, pneumonia, surgical sites and gastroenteritis.
Surveillance traditionally involved significant manual data assessment and entry in order to assess preventative actions such as isolation of patients with an infectious disease. Increasingly, computerized software solutions are becoming available that assess incoming risk messages from microbiology and other online sources.
By reducing the need for data entry, software can reduce the data workload of ICPs, freeing them to concentrate on clinical surveillance. As of , approximately one third of healthcare acquired infections were preventable. CDC found in the s that hospitals reduced their nosocomial infection rates by approximately 32 per cent by focusing on surveillance activities and prevention efforts. In the health care context, medical isolation refers to various physical measures taken to interrupt nosocomial spread of contagious diseases.
Various forms of isolation exist, and are applied depending on the type of infection and agent involved, to address the likelihood of spread via airborne particles or droplets, by direct skin contact, or via contact with body fluids. In cases where infection is merely suspected, individuals may be quarantined until the incubation period has passed and the disease manifests itself or the person remains healthy.
Groups may undergo quarantine, or in the case of communities, a cordon sanitaire may be imposed to prevent infection from spreading beyond the community, or in the case of protective sequestration , into a community. Public health authorities may implement other forms of social distancing , such as school closings, to control an epidemic.
When an unusual cluster of illness is noted, infection control teams undertake an investigation to determine whether there is a true outbreak, a pseudo-outbreak a result of contamination within the diagnostic testing process , or just random fluctuation in the frequency of illness. If a true outbreak is discovered, infection control practitioners try to determine what permitted the outbreak to occur, and to rearrange the conditions to prevent ongoing propagation of the infection. Often, breaches in good practice are responsible, although sometimes other factors such as construction may be the source of the problem.
Outbreaks investigations have more than a single purpose. These investigations are carried out in order to prevent additional cases in the current outbreak, prevent future outbreaks, learn about a new disease or learn something new about an old disease.
Reassuring the public, minimizing the economic and social disruption as well as teaching epidemiology are some other obvious objectives of outbreak investigations. According to the WHO , outbreak investigations are meant to detect what is causing the outbreak, how the pathogenic agent is transmitted, where it all started from, what is the carrier, what is the population at risk of getting infected and what are the risk factors. The results of outbreak investigations are always made public in the means of a report in which the findings are communicated to the authorities, media, scientific community and so on.
These reports are commonly used as pedagogical tools. Mallik et al. Those most at risk, as stated earlier, are people at both poles of life; the very young and the very old. People undergoing chemotherapy treatment for cancer are also a high risk group for acquiring nosocomial infections, as the chemotherapy diminishes the amount of white blood cells the body has, which are used to fight infection.
Some cancer patients are given antibiotics as a precaution to prevent infection, but when the signs of infection appear in a chemotherapy patient, they must be treated as soon as possible, because it can become a very dangerous infection within a few hours, as their body has little or no way of fighting it off. The impact of hospital acquired infections is no doubt a burden on the NHS in terms of cost, morbidity and mortality.
According to Bourn , around one in eleven patients at any one time has an infection caught in hospital, there are at least , hospital infections a year, they cost the NHS hundreds of millions of pounds a year and they can mean several extra days in hospital. Nosocomial infections not only cost the NHS financially and affect services, but they also have a profound impact on the patient and their families.
Infection control is a fundamental aspect of a nurse’s role
If a patient who goes into hospital for a routine operation contracts a hospital born infection, it can affect many parts of their life, for example their family will be affected by grief and worry, and the patient if they work will have to take more sick leave from employment, affecting their income and possibly other family members such as their partner having to manage household bills without them.
They may become more stressed about their current situation, or feel low and depressed about being more ill than they were when they initially entered hospital care. Although nosocomial infections still do present a problem for many hospitals in the UK, there are measures which can be taken to prevent the spread of infection. These range from the very basics of hand washing, to the more complicated processes of surveillance of hospital infections.
Hand hygiene is top priority in healthcare settings, as it has been now recognised that the healthcare professional could be a vector for infection, whereas in early medicine this was unknown.