a level english literature coursework criteria

Please read the guidelines carefully before submitting papers. IEEE translate to no more than 17 (review articles) or 15 (research articles) formatted pages. Word .doc ovfiblireacon.ga), Portable Document Format (PDF), Corel WordPerfect (WPD ).

Barat made it evident that there is a huge impact as a result of education. This impact can be personal in the way that Barat described it as education making people happy to an impact on a society. Would you support a bill for universal pre-Kindergarten education?

Draw on research discussed in class and in your textbook to provide evidence for your perspective. Education is an influential and impactful topic that is always a subject on the minds of the public and for politicians. Oftentimes, said truth is revealed intentionally. Universal truths such as struggle, endurance, and agony help authors influence their audiences. These truths cause the readers to become cognizant of and appreciate the authors. Skinners theory would be a slow process and require careful shaping. Messer argues that because babies have not yet had any formal education and are very young to learn a language so quickly.

His research takes into consideration that the adult language is so complex and. The struggle of acquiring suffrage is a long history, one that we as Americans paradoxically praise and condemn, but it is history, and now we must look towards the future. Yet, Harvard Professor Dr. More importantly, she provokes. Home Page Research Universal Education. Universal Education Words Apr 6, 7 Pages.

Education is every body's birth-right and it is binding on any government to provide facilities for education for children who are born and reach the school-going age.

Chapter II- Framework of the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009

It was stipulated to achieve Universalization within 10 years from the introduction of Constitution and that is by Unfortunately, some States failed to enact a law for free and compulsory education to the children below the age of 14 years. Even though, many States have taken steps towards free basic education, but, they could not make it compulsory.


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In early time, the question was raised before Kerala High Court regarding the justiciability of Article 45 of the Constitution but it was held that Article 45 is not justiciable, being only directive in nature. The Article does not confer legally enforceable right upon primary schools to receive grants-in-aid from the Government. This article was a directive principle of State policies within India, effectively meaning that it was within a set of rules that were meant to be followed in spirit and the government could not be held to count if the actual letter was not followed.

However, the enforcement of this directive principle became a matter of debate since this principle held obvious emotive and practical value, and was legally the only directive principle within the Indian Constitution to have a time limit.

The first time the question of right to free and compulsory education was raised in the case of Mohini Jain, in , popularly known as "capitation fee case". In this case, petitioner Mohini Jain of Meerut UP had challenged the validity of a notification issued by the Government under the Karnataka Education Institutions Prohibition of Capitation Fee Act, , which was passed to regulate tuition fee to be charged by the Private Medical Colleges in the State. Under the notification of the tuition fee to be charged from students was as: Candidates admitted against Government seats Rs. The petitioner was denied admission on the ground that, she was unable to pay the exorbitant tuition fee of Rs.

Capitation fee makes the availability of education beyond the reach of poor. The right to education is concomitant to the fundamental rights enshrined under Part III of the Constitution. The fundamental right to speech and expression cannot be fully enjoyed unless a citizen is educated and conscious of his individualistic dignity. The education in India has never been a commodity for sale, their lordships declared.

The right to education flows directly from the right to life. The right to life under Article 21 and the dignity of an individual cannot be assured unless it is accompanied by the right to education. The Supreme Court was asked to examine the correctness of the decision given by the court in Mohini Jain in the case of Unnikrishnan. The petitioner running Medical and Engineering Colleges in the State of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu contended that if Mohini Jain decision is correct and followed by the respective State Governments they will have to close down their colleges.

Compulsory Education Essay

Private education institutions are a necessity in the present day context. The citizen of the this country have a fundamental right to education and it flows from Article This right is, however, not an absolute right. Its content and parameters have to be determined in the light of Articles 45 and Thereafter his right to education is subject to the limits of economic capacity and development of the State.

Right to education is not stated expressly as a Fundamental Right in Part III of the Constitution of India, However, having regard to the fundamental significance of education to the life of an individual and the nation, right to education is implicit in and flows from the right to life guaranteed by Article That the right to education has been treated as one of transcendental importance in the life of an individual is recognised all over the world.

Without education being provided to the citizens of this country, the objectives set forth in the preamble to the Constitution cannot be achieved. The Constitution would fail. The decision of the Mohini Jain case was partly overruled and it was held that Mohini Jain case was not right in holding that charging of any amount must be described as capitation fee.

Saying so amounts to imposing an impossible condition, it is not possible for the private educational institutions. But they must be allowed to do so under strict regulatory controls in order to prevent private education institutions from commercialising education. The charging of the permitted fees by the private educational institutions, which is bound to be higher than the charged by similar Government institutions, cannot itself be characterised as capitation fee. Of late, in the year after 52 years of the enforcement of the Constitution, the Parliament has made the fundamental right to education, free and compulsory for the children of the age 6 to 14 years by Constitution 86th Amendment Act, The court asked the Registrar-General of Census to furnish figures for child labour in the country.

In December, , the court issued notice to the centre.

When the matter came up for hearing, the Bench expressed concern over continuance of child labour. After the constitutional amendment providing for compulsory education to years, there could not be child labourers. It is the duty of the State to provide them schools. After being signed by the President, the Indian Constitution was amended formally for the eighty sixth time and the Act came into force with effect from 1st April, The Government of India Act, provided that "education should be free and compulsory for both boys and girls. The Sargent Report strongly recommended free and compulsory education for children aged 6 to fourteen.

Gopal Krishna Gokhale while debating a bill on compulsory education in the imperial legislative council in has said, "Elementary education is both compulsory and free, and in a few nations, though the principle of compulsion is not strictly enforced or has not been introduced, it is either wholly or for the most part gratitutious, in India alone it is neither compulsory nor free. If nothing else, the report points to the need for ongoing reviews of the status of education in the country at various levels and in different parts of the country. The poor delivery of basic services education, health, water, etc is a major problem in India, indeed in much of the developing world.

This creates a huge gap between word and action, intent and result, policy and practice. The Convention of the Rights of the Child adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations on November 20, , and ratified by India in , inter alia, asks the "States Parties [to] recognise the right of the child to education, and with a view to achieving this right progressively and on the basis of equal opportunity, they shall, in particular: a Make primary education compulsory and available free to all; b Take measures to encourage regular attendance at schools and the reduction of dropout rates".

There is great yearning in them that somehow their children should have access to education and entry to school.

Compulsory Moral Education in Schools?

So oftenly touted argument that due to poverty many parents rather than sending their children to school induct them into exploitative practices such as child labour, beggary or doing jobs unsuited to their health or the argument that even if these poor families send their children to school, they do so just to earn mid-day meal and many other similar arguments in our assessment do not capture the truth. In a Report of the year brought out by "Pratichi Trust"- a trust set up by Prof. Amartya Sen aimed at basic education and equity and after having looked into various studies undertaken by the trust in India, it has been noted that the importance of education is easily perceived even by the poorest and the most deprived families long to give basic education to their children, to make them grow without the terrible handicaps from which they-the parents had themselves suffered.

However, it cannot be denied and it is true to some extent that due to complete mismatch between what happens in the class room in the name of education and what those joining schools are in need to learn to meet their day-to-day struggles for earning their livelihood, a significant number of them either drop out or simply kill their time, talent and potential- a Colossal Waste of Human Resources. Still it remains important to make education compulsory and to ensure that the State under no pretext be allowed to shirk the Directives issued to it by the Founding Fathers to strive to ensure free and compulsory education for all until they complete the age of 14 years so as to meet the rising urge, aspiration and expectation for education amongst people of every shade.

The central government will prepare estimates of expenditures while the state governments will be provided a percentage support of these costs. The Right of Children to free and Compulsory Education Act, is passed in both the Houses and comes into force with effect from 1st April, This Act provides right to free and compulsory education of every child between the age of six to fourteen. For this to happen, he needs a certain degree of education.

Related Topics

Without it, a citizen may never come to know of his other rights; nor would he have the resources to adequately enforce them. The Supreme Court has explained why education should be compulsory. A free educated citizen could meaningfully exercise his political rights, discharge social responsibilities satisfactorily and develop a spirit of tolerance and reform.

Therefore, education is compulsory. Primary education to the children, in particular, to the poor, weaker sections, Dalits and Tribes and minorities is mandatory. The basic education and employment-oriented vocational education should be imparted so as to retrieve them from poverty and, thus, develop basic abilities to live a meaningful life, the principal means and primary duty of the State for stability for the democracy, social integration and to eliminate social tensions.

There are no exceptions to this law. The child is born immature. To live, he must give himself form; he must learn continuously; he must acquire makings of a sage or a fool, a saint or a sinner, a citizen or a subversive, a hero or some variant of the muddling mean. And the community is deeply involved in this education.

Although every man continuously undergoes a compulsory education in which he is the central, active agent, no one acquires his education in isolation. Even in very primitive circumstances, it is a predominantly social process, driven by man's need to involve himself with others, comprising the acquisition of common languages, customs, techniques, and aspirations.

It is "individualized" through each man's personal response to his manifold involvements with others. Man is a political animal for the simple reason that to live he must accept his education in the company of other men. Even the hermit defines himself not by the mere absence of other people but by his active rejection of them. And in this example of the hermit, in which a man decides that involvement with others is a pernicious influence on his person, we have an intimation of the primary responsibility of the community in education.

Profound educational effects result from the social circumstances that each experiences. Hence, in an enlightened community efforts will not be spared to make these circumstances as elevating as possible. More than anything else, the character of each person's compulsory education is infused into him by the diverse public realities pressing upon him.

Birth itself is undoubtedly experienced as a demanding disruption, one to which the infant, accepting the pressing air into its empty lungs, must desperately respond.

Universal Education - Words | Bartleby

Throughout life, complicated social circumstances thereafter press upon him like the air, forcing themselves upon his unformed character. Each person is born to particular parents, who possess a definite station at a particular time and place, who strive to solve certain challenges by means of their peculiar capacities. Compelled to begin from a definite point in time and space, each person ineluctably meets his mother tongue, social customs, civic aspirations, class expectations, religious beliefs, ethical dispositions, basic style of lifeā€”all of which he must let be pressed upon him before he can try to transform his personality according to a consciously chosen pattern.

Early in our educational heritage, we Americans became aware that this compulsory education through enculturation provided the basis for active initiative in the making and remaking of law, custom, culture, and public policy. Long before there were compulsory education laws, all laws were a part of compulsory education. As a consequence, such theorists as Plato perceived the importance of judging all legislation, customs, and efforts to persuade, by their educational effect, to see what a well-intentioned man would be likely to learn from the various principles and practices he would encounter in the school of life.

As long as political theorists aspired to bring into being the good citizen who might populate the good state, pedagogical concerns were central in it.