But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present. The Alien and Sedition Acts were a series of four laws passed by the U. Congress in amid widespread fear that war with France was imminent. The four laws—which remain controversial to this day—restricted the activities of foreign residents in the country and limited Known for their support of a strong national government, the Federalists emphasized commercial and diplomatic harmony with The rebels were mostly ex-Revolutionary War soldiers-turned farmers who opposed state Written in and stemming from wartime urgency, its progress was slowed by fears of central authority and extensive land claims by states.
It was not ratified until March The Whiskey Rebellion was a uprising of farmers and distillers in western Pennsylvania in protest of a whiskey tax enacted by the federal government. Following years of aggression with tax collectors, the region finally exploded in a confrontation that resulted in President Without them, there would have been no United States of America. The Founding Fathers, a group of predominantly wealthy plantation owners and businessmen, united 13 disparate colonies, fought for independence from Britain and penned a series of influential governing documents On March 8, , a group of Pennsylvania militiamen slaughtered some 90 unarmed Native Americans at the Moravian mission settlement of Gnadenhutten, Ohio.
Although the militiamen claimed they were seeking revenge for Indian raids on their frontier settlements, the Indians they James Madison was a founding father of the United States and the fourth American president, serving in office from to An advocate for a strong federal government, the Virginia-born Madison composed the first drafts of the U. Constitution and the Bill of The Benson list is suspect, then, because the claim for its authenticity is based on the evidence of two men neither of whom stated that he actually saw it. JAY and Mr. While the numbers claimed by Hamilton in the Benson list and in his own copy of The Federalist are the same, the list by Chancellor James Kent disagrees in several particulars from the other two.
However familiar one is with the handwriting of another, it is difficult to determine if a single numeral is in his writing. But despite the impossibility of positive identification, a close comparison of numerals made by Hamilton with the numerals which were added to the Kent list strongly indicates that the changes are in the writing of Hamilton.
The ink clearly reveals that the three notes were made at different times. Hamilton told me. Underneath this clipping Kent wrote:.
I suspect therefore from internal Ev. A comparison of the Kent list for those essays claimed by Hamilton with the Gideon edition for those essays claimed by Madison makes it clear that there is room for doubt only over the authorship of essays 18, 19, 20, 50, 51, 52, 54—58, and 62— On the margin of his copy of The Federalist opposite number 18 Madison wrote:.
H and Mr. What had been prepared by Mr. H who had entered more briefly into the subject, was left with Mr. M on its appearing that the latter was engaged in it, with larger materials, and with a view to a more precise delineation; and from the pen of the latter, the several papers went to the Press. The problem of determining the authorship of these three essays is merely one of deciding on the comparative contributions of the two men.
Although there are several sentences which are very similar to remarks Hamilton recorded in the outline for his speech of June 18, , on the Constitution, most of the material was undoubtedly supplied by Madison who without doubt wrote these essays. Essay 20, for example, is virtually a copy of notes which Madison had taken in preparation for the Constitutional Convention. Internal evidence has proved to be of little assistance in determining the authorship of The Federalist. The ablest studies in this field are those by Edward G. Bourne 34 and J.
Hamilton asserts that they were written by his father. Bourne and J. Hamilton attempt to prove their respective cases by printing excerpts from the disputed essays parallel to similar, and sometimes identical, passages from other writings by each man. The significant point, however, is that each man was able to find evidence that his candidate wrote all the disputed essays.
What Was One Of The Most Persuasive Arguments For The Constitution In The Federalist Papers
The problems posed by internal evidence are made even more difficult by the fact that both Hamilton and Madison defended the Constitution with similar arguments and by the fact that they both had a remarkably similar prose style. To attempt to find in any of the disputed essays words which either man used and which the other never employed is futile, if only because the enormous amount which each wrote allows the assiduous searcher to discover almost any word in the earlier or subsequent writings of both.
Their later political differences prove little about what they wrote in — If one were to rely on internal evidence, it would be impossible to assign all the disputed essays to either Hamilton or Madison. While such evidence indicates that Madison surely wrote numbers 49—54 and probably 62—63, it also suggests that Hamilton wrote 55— The story was first related in Hamilton, History description begins John C.
Hamilton, ed. Morris to W.
Drafts of only two essays, 5 and 64, both of which were written by John Jay, have been found. The draft of essay 3 is now owned by Mr. Ruddy Ruggles of Chicago. Others J.
The Federalist Papers
Hamilton and Henry B. Dawson, for example were aware that they appeared first in different newspapers, but they did not determine accurately the newspaper in which each essay first appeared. The New-York Journal carried only essays 23 through At no time, however, did an essay appear in The New-York Journal without appearing in at least one of the three other papers at the same time.
Shortly after this, on January 30, , Greenleaf discontinued publication of the essays with number 39 numbered by him McLean, No. There is no question that H was the author of the preface and that he corrected the essays.
York Mar. Reprinted from the Original Text. Hamilton, The Federalist description begins John C. Henry B. Hamilton, Mr. Madison, and Mr. A New Edition.
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The Numbers Written by Mr. Three days after the publication of the first essay, Hamilton sent George Washington a copy of it. On December 2, , Madison wrote to Edmund Randolph:. This paper was begun about three weeks ago, and proposes to go through the subject. I have not been able to collect all the numbers, since my return to Philad, or I would have sent them to you. I have been the less anxious, as I understand the printer means to make a pamphlet of them, when I can give them to you in a more convenient form.
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You will probably discover marks of different pens. I am not at liberty to give you any other key, than, that I am in myself for a few numbers; and that one, besides myself was a member of the Convention. Jay, and Mr. Madison … A new edition, with the names and portraits of the several writers. The letter in The Port Folio of November 14, , reads as follows:. There are several lists other than those subsequently discussed in the text. The rest of the work by Alexander Hamilton. Church from her Sister. Elizabeth Hamilton. Angelica Schuyler Church, despite her admiration for her brother-in-law, had long been a friend of Jefferson and must have sent her copy of The Federalist to him.
It is not known from whom Jefferson got his information on the authorship of the essays, but presumably it was from Madison. A facsimile is printed in E. Madison—10, 14, 37—48 exclusive of last. Except for two differences it conforms to the Benson list. Both correspond to the Benson list. H supposedly stated in the Benson list that he wrote 64 and that Jay was the author of Both H and Madison agreed that Jay wrote 2, 3, 4, and 5. That Jay contributed only five essays was due to an attack of rheumatism which lasted through the winter of Madison wrote Nos.
Jay wrote Nos. Benjamin Rush, the oldest son of Richard, sent Henry B. The anonymous author of the article in the City of Washington Gazette stated that Madison wrote essays 10, 14, 17, 18, 19, 21, 37—58, 62—63, that Jay was the author of essays 2, 3, 4, 5, and 64, and that H wrote the rest.
Gideon, p. In this edition, essays 10, 14, 18—20, 37—58, 62—63 are assigned to Madison; 2, 3, 4, 5, and 64 to Jay; and the remainder to H. Jay; Nos. Madison; Nos. Hamilton and Mr. Madison jointly; all the rest by Mr. The remainder of the story related in this paragraph is taken from J.
New-York Evening Post , January 23, The volume from which the memorandum was stolen may have been at one time in the New York Society Library; however, it is no longer there. That library has no McLean edition of The Federalist that bears any marks which indicate that a piece of paper once had been pasted on the inside cover. The italics have been inserted. Hamilton did not get this statement from Robert Benson.
For the attribution of authorship which H made in his copy of The Federalist , see note Cole, ed. According to the librarian of the Huntington Library, San Marino, California, which acquired the Church library, the notes were not in the writing of H. The book, which is no longer in the Huntington Library, was sold to an unknown purchaser.
According to that list, Madison wrote not only all the disputed essays but also essay The clipping from the City of Washington Gazette was dated December 15, , and the notes on the opposite page of the flyleaf, as stated in the text, could not have been written later than How, then, could Kent have written that he doubted that Jay wrote essay 64 when the essay was attributed to Jay on a page which was in front of Kent as he wrote?
The only possible answer is that Kent, when writing in or later, failed to look carefully at the changes which had been made in his earlier memorandum and had his uncorrected list in mind.